What are biennales for? Another contributor to this volume has outlined historic national governmental and diplomatic motivations for establishing events of this kind. The efficacy of such undertakings as prestige enhancing, tourist enticing strategies is also understood by many politicians worldwide, and the profusion of biennales and triennales – more than two hundred and counting – provides the proof. Given this large field, it is worth commenting on the operational conditions that underpin the Marrakech Biennale. Such observations contextualize its fourth edition, both in terms of the festival’s institutional development and its visual artistic program for 2012.
Unlike the only other biennale to involve Morocco – the itinerant Arab Art Biennale, staged in Rabat (just once) in 1976 – and almost all of the international festivals mentioned in Antony Gardner’s article, the Marrakech Biennale is an independent non-profit initiative. It was founded in 2005 by Vanessa Branson, a British philanthropist and businesswoman based in London and Marrakech, as a response to the frosty relationship between the Islamic world and the ‘the West’ during George W. Bush’s War on Terror. Branson intended the festival – then named the Arts in Marrakech Biennale (AIM) – as a cultural bridge that would bring international and Moroccan intellectuals together in dialogue. In this first iteration a greater focus was placed on literature and film than visual art. It was a small scale event, largely cloistered in Branson’s riad, notwithstanding the exhibition of her Wonderful Fund Collection at the – privately owned – Musée du Marrakech. At this beginning stage, AIM was closer to a salon than a public festival.
The second AIM largely followed the same model, but with its art component doubling in size to include both the photographic survey exhibition 9 Perspectives from South Africa
at the Musée du Marrakech – curated by Ross Douglas – and L’appartement 22 Rabat/Marrakech
, a survey of works in various media by contemporary Moroccan artists at the L’Ecole Superieure des Arts Visuels (ESAV), selected by Abdellah Kharroum. The latter would curate the ambitious main exhibition of the next biennale in 2009, entitled A Proposal for Articulating Works and Places
. It is worth noting the relevance of one of this exhibition’s key gambits, namely, its exploration of correspondence between continents and different geographies, encapsulated in Francis Alÿs project “Don’t cross the bridge before you get to the river”
(2009) – which examined both physical and intangible borders between Africa and Europe. Moving beyond traditional gallery-style presentation, a Special Project also brought the biennale out of the museum into the street: Julien Fisera and Laurent P. Berger’s Stories of Order & Disorder
was a successful community facing artwork that built on the Moroccan storytelling tradition, deploying thirty bards – both professional and amateur – and a fleet of fifteen petit-taxi drivers to regale unsuspecting passengers and passers by.
Carson Chan and I were determined that the third biennale’s promising inroads towards grassroots community engagement and its successful artistic commissions for the public realm should be taken up and extended through our own curatorial project. Moreover, as non Moroccan/Maghreb art specialists we did not desire to produce a summary of national or regional artistic practice. Much less, to apply the reductive bracket of ‘authentic’ Moroccan identity fait accompli
to artists who may not agree with our designation. Given the preparation time available, any attempt to achieve the first would have either reiterated a stale status quo or advanced a woefully reduced snapshot of local practice and intellectual agendas. In the second, the spectres of ethnic essentialism and marketing expediency would have rendered such an approach unhelpful. Hence, we invited a broad selection of international artists to envisage how the particular physical and cultural context of an exhibition in Marrakech might feature within a macro circuit or transcendent condition. The results were surprising and exhilarating, all the more so because they combined sophistication with successful strategies for communicating to a wide audience from disparate backgrounds.
The exhibition was to be called Higher Atlas
. High connotes reverie and transcendence. ‘Higher Atlas’ suggests a cartography of the beyond. The title of the main exhibition of the 4th Marrakech Biennale also refers to the local geography – the Atlas Mountains, which are visible from the venue. In this respect the site is the starting point or ‘ground’ for a series of trips, both virtual and physical. The key theme is that other worlds begin where one is standing; beyonds are closer that one might think. This thesis is explored through site-specific interventions by international contemporary artists, architects, a composer and a writer. In so doing, a complex experience of site emerges from the particularity of the venue, encompassing a nexus of local and global conditions. The exhibition created numerous vantage points, making strange the ground beneath one’s feet. Amongst the proposals we received, some moods emerged – shifts in scale from small to large and vice versa, from surface to depth, from ground to figure, inversions and parallax; passages from social to mystical and the other way round.
Carson and I imagined an exhibition whose elements would be completely conceived in response to the site and physically produced in Marrakech. In this way, we hoped, the biennale could further satisfy its mission to produce international cultural bridges through an exhibition project while avoiding the pitfall of context-blind importation of content. In pursuing this agenda we were keen to manage the participation of foreign artists so that they would not merely play the role of tourists – bringing with them precious material baggage in the form of art objects. Instead, they would have to undertake two residency periods – during both the research stage of their work and its production. Nevertheless, we were aware that this strategy would not, by itself, avoid demonstrating the ‘nomadic principle’ which Miwon Kwon has identified as a defining condition of capital and power in our times. The freedom that would allow many of our artists to produce ‘site-specific’ projects is unequally distributed among creative professionals with different passports. Recognizing this critical appraisal of the relationship between the travelling cultural worker and a global status quo, we sought to avoid commissioning works that might valorize exotic changes of scenery – benign displacement – enjoyed by frequent-flyers and those proffering dubious notions of cultural ‘hybridity’. Such shibboleths are, as Johnathan Friedman has observed, a well-known posture in the contemporary artworld:
In the work of the post-colonial border-crossers, it is always the poet, the artist, the intellectual, who sustains the displacement and objectifies it in the printed word. But who reads the poetry, and what are the other kinds of identification occurring in the lower reaches of social reality? […] The global, culturally hybrid, elite sphere is occupied by individuals who share a very different kind of experience of the world’.
On a more concrete level, we initiated series of structured interactions between biennale artists and mentees from the Université Cadi Ayyad– the latter tasked with playing key roles in the production of the former’s works. Each of the practitioners were paired with students – most of whom, it was established during the application process, had never left Morocco. These young persons were to help locate and negotiate with artisans, communicating both artists’ visions and the artisans’ proposed translations. Thus, the exhibition would not involve outsourcing the fabrication of already complete designs but, instead, constitute a platform for conversation between three demographics; drawing mobile and less-mobile stakeholders into a shared dialogue in order to produce new, consensual, realities. The biennale also extended the creative space to workshops with primary school children and young orphans, led by biennale artists.
Within the spectrum of contemporary artistic practice attention to a ‘site’ does not need to be limited to demonstrating how the physical elements of an actual location can formally condition art objects. While actively encouraging works in this vein, the main exhibition is also informed by recent approaches that revel in a semantic slippage between content and place – which proffer ‘multiple definitions of the site, [that] in the end find their “locational” anchor in the discursive’. This is a method that deems ‘cultural debates, a theoretical concept, a social issue, a political problem, an institutional framework […] a community or seasonal event, a historical condition, even particular formations of desire’ as sites. According to this understanding, for the biennale to be a fruitful investigation of ‘site’ our project would have to contend with narratives and ideologies as much as material exigencies.
Beyond artist’s projects engaging with the discursive vectors outlined above, and the workshops with varied stakeholders, it was clear that a research focus on the history, problematics and possibilities for exhibition making in the city and – more generally – Morocco was called for. In attempting to understand these issues during our early preparation we were struck by the lack of written information available. Dedicated public archives do not exist and foreign resources are rather limited. The existing scholarship – such as Katarzyna Pieprzak’s Imagined Museums
– was most useful in outlining the dearth of non-profit institutional support for contemporary artistic production, exhibition and discussion within Morocco – to say nothing of the awkward and frequently orientalizing parameters by which expatriate Moroccans find visibility abroad. Consequently, we have attempted provide a platform for the exchange of historical and methodological knowledge – which we have pursued through this publication – as opposed to a basic catalogue – and the Marrakech Biennale/Dar Al Mam’un Conversations
It is worth re-emphasizing that the biennale not operated as if it were here to fill in a tabula rasa
. At least two generations of post-colonial artistic strategies exist and are alluded to in this volume. However, perhaps the biennale’s most serious task is to make a visible representation in contemporary Moroccan cultural space for others to push back against. To the same degree that the essays herein will be informative we expect them to be disputed by Moroccan artists and other specialists. Let us hope that our endeavor provokes at least as much as it pleases. To increase the chances of this happening a bilingual publication was imperative. In sum, our attempt to address ‘site’ in the broadest sense led us to a critical re-fashioning of the purpose of the biennale as an organization – and the wider social and intellectual engagement that has been inaugurated by this process will continue in subsequent editions.
The Shifting Site
Before taking up our curatorial posts we were informed that the exhibition venue would be the 16th century ruin of the El Badi Palace – built by the Saadian Sultan Ahmad al-Mansur, located in the medina. Its immense complex of crumbing rooms, sunken gardens, reflecting pools, pavilions and a dungeon seemed an unparalleled set of creative opportunities. Discussions between the biennale and the authorities in charge of the site had already taken place with positive results and the former had been informed that timely submission of appropriate documents to designated bureaucrats would seal the deal. However, with just three months to go before the ‘site-specific’ exhibition – and after all our artists had already conducted preliminary research trips – we received an unequivocal letter from the Ministry of Culture informing us that, due to renovation work, the palace would not be available after all. Without a physical site, we asked ourselves, what would be specific about our exhibition? So began the urgent process of re-imagining each artist’s biennale project.
Under these circumstances, the biennale’s status vis a vis the public life of a country undergoing great social change was an open question. Some of the uncertain conditions that shaped this edition of the biennale are hardly novel. The previous installment also suffered a last minute change of venue. Originally set to take place at the Musée du Marrakech, a disagreement between the two organizations necessitated a move to the Palais Bahia – a beautifully state-owned 19th century complex in the heart of the medina which was formerly the residence of General Lyautey – head of the French colonial army in Morocco – before its current role as one of the city’s key tourism sites. What Kharroum’s exhibition lost in the field of planning through the venue change it gained in the form of a wider audience. However, the Bahia did not come without its own strict conditions, including a prohibition on affixing objects such as framed photographs to walls and, as Holiday Powers has noted, more poetic difficulties in the form stray cats making physical alterations to an artwork that featured live goldfish. In Morocco – it has been said – anything is possible but nothing is certain. Although we bore this maxim in mind at the start of the Higher Atlas
project its sagacity would become more apparent. Not in terms of some kind of ethno-cultural ‘truth’ but, rat